“To explore the dynamism of online vitriol and policy measures in the priority areas, the paper builds on the framework of ‘extreme speech’ rather than the more commonly invoked term, ‘hate speech’. ‘Extreme speech’ emphasizes the importance of longer histories of exclusion, racialization and dispossession that underpin contemporary digital manifestations of hate. At the same time, it draws attention to rapidly mutating online user practices including recent trends of hateful language that comes cloaked in ‘funny’ memes and wordplays, and intricate networks of political manipulation that draw not only on technology but also social trust.”


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