“While this study focuses on the specific scenario of hate and counter speech on German Twitter, the findings offer insight for addressing other types of online disinformation. ‘Hateful messaging is really a subset of disinformation,’ says Garland. ‘It’s disinformation about a person or group of people. Our paper shows that organizing matters to fight against disinformation. It might be scary to stand up against a neo-Nazi on my own, but if I can use a hashtag or post on a platform where I have support, it’s easier to stand up against the bully.'”


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