… the challenge of protecting against discrimination, dehumanisation, and incitement to violence while preserving individual freedom of expression seems to be contextual when defining hate speech. A series of three different online focus groups which consist of a total of 22 participants were conducted to gather insights from civil society and experts to build concrete definitions and understand the construction of hate speech from a Malaysian perspective. Hence, it tries to explore the extent how social media act as a platform that exacerbates the othering discourse in the online sphere.


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