While recognizing the value of contract as a fourth “C” to reflect risks for children in relation to commercialization and datafication, this
typology uses a “three C” framework to encompass online safety risks for a broad range of end users. It categorizes these harms, including threats to personal and community safety such as child exploitation and extremist content, harm to health caused by content promoting suicide or disordered eating and violations of dignity and privacy through bullying and harassment, doxxing and image-based abuse. Deception and manipulation, such as disinformation and manipulated media, are also addressed. While this publication does not specifically cover emerging technologies such as the metaverse, Web3 or generative AI, it emphasizes the need for the ongoing development of processes that keep pace with technological advances and their societal impact.


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