Our findings reveal that deep learning techniques outperform shallow learning methods, with BiLSTM emerging as the most accurate model for hate speech detection. The BiLSTM model demonstrates improved sensitivity to context, semantic nuances, and sequential patterns in tweets, making it adept at capturing the intricate nature of hate speech. Furthermore, we explore the integration of word embeddings, such as Word2Vec and GloVe, to enhance the performance of our models. The incorporation of these embeddings significantly improves the models’ ability to discern between hate speech and other forms of online communication. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of various machine learning methods for hate speech detection on Twitter, ultimately demonstrating the superiority of deep learning techniques, particularly BiLSTM, in addressing this critical issue. Our findings pave the way for further research into advanced methods of tackling hate speech and facilitating healthier online interactions.


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