Recognizing that hate speech is expressive of hatred can help explain away the supposed counterexamples to hate speech’s essential connection to hatred. Second, certain aspects hate speech – it may have harmful effects, it can be systematically and constitutively discriminatory – are consistent with placing hatred at the heart of hate speech. What makes hate speech pernicious, then, is the hatred that it normalizes and the action tendencies and goals that it tends to generate.

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