Recognising the complex nature of online safety, the typology builds upon prior research into risk classification enshrined in the EU CO:RE 4 C’s that classifies threats into content, contact, and conduct risks. In particular, such a theoretical framework is based on the understanding that online harms can occur throughout the production, distribution and consumption of content (content) but can also arise due to online interactions with others (contact) and behaviour facilitated by technology (conduct).

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